Statistics is all about data; collecting it, analysing it and presenting it. Statisticians use different ways of representing data to make it easier to read and understand.

Once statistics have been collected and analysed, they can be used to make decisions and plan. For example, if a shop collects data about how many people use the shop at different times of day, they can organise the rota to make sure there are always enough staff.

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## Statistics Facts

• The oldest known statistics are over five thousand years old. The Ancient Babylonians collected information about people for a census. (A census is a way of finding out who lives in a place and what they are like. The Babylonians collected this information so that they knew how much food they needed to feed everyone.
• A Carroll diagram is named after its inventor; Lewis Carroll, the author of Alice in Wonderland. He was also an accomplished mathematician.
• Presenting data can help people to understand it better. For example, a bar chart can show information more clearly than a list.
• The mean of a data set is the average. This is found by adding all of the values together and dividing by the number of times in the set. For example, 5 children play a game. The scores they get are 2, 4, 3, 5 and 1. 2+4+3+5+1=15. 15÷5=3. The mean score for all the children is 3.
• Florence Nightingale collected statistics about soldiers in hospital during the Crimean War and used it to identify how to improve conditions. She invented a diagram that clearly showed that many more soldiers died from disease than from injuries.

## Videos

#### Easy Statistics For Kids

Collect data on cars going over Blackfriar’s Bridge using a tally chart, and then construct a graph.

Running time: 4:55

#### Carroll Diagrams

This diagram shows worked examples of placing items in a Carroll diagram.

Running time: 2:07

#### Tally Charts

A clear explanation of how to collect data using a tally chart.

Running time: 2:17

## Books

##### If the World Were a Village

This interesting book presents data as if the world were a village of 100 people, helping children to visualise the information.

##### Guinness World Records 2022

This fascinating book is always a great source of data that children enjoy reading.

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